Sunday, March 15, 2009

List of popular woods to avoid

Also found at the same location as my last post this list.

List of popular woods to avoid, to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Most of this information is taken from: Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin.4
Dalbergia spp: (Rosewoods) 
Dalbergia cearensis: (Kingwood, de Violette, Violet Wood, Violetta) contains a dalbergione, described as a very severe skin irritant, often leading to persistent ulceration.4
Dalbergia cochinchinensis: (Laos Rosewood, Thai Rosewood, Cochin Rosewood) contain R-4-methoxydalbergione and other quinones.4
Dalbergia congestiflora: (Mexican Kingwood) contains a dalbergione.4
Dalbergia cultrate: (Burmese Rosewood) contains a dalbergione.4
Dalbergia decipularis and Dalbergia frutescens: (Tulipwood) contains a dalbergione.4
Dalbergia latifolia: (East Indian Rosewood, Sonokoling) contain R-4-methoxydalbergione and other quinones.4
Dalbergia maritime: (Madagascar Rosewood, Bois de Rose) contains a dalbergione.4
Dalbergia melanoxylon: (African Blackwood) contains several quinones including S-4'-hydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione and S-4-methoxydalbergione.4
Dalbergia nigra: (Brazilian Rosewood) contains R-4-methoxydalbergione and other quinones.4 Also endangered.
Dalbergia retusa: (Cocobolo) contains S-4'-hydroxy-4-methoxydalbergione, R-4-methoxydalbergione, obtusaquinone, and other quinones and phenols.4
Dalbergia stevensonii: (Honduran Rosewood, Nagaed Wood, Palissandre Honduras) contains a dalbergione.4
Acer saccharum: (Sugar Maple) "This species has been found to contain 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone which is a known contact allergen."7
Betula spp: (Birch) contains salicylates such as methyl salicylate, cross-sensitivities could occur in those with aspirin allergies. Birch also listed as sensitizer.5
Cinnamomum camphora: (Camphorwood) The wood contains camphor and borneol. Following cases of serious toxicity and even death in children, products containing more than trace quantities of camphor have now largely been withdrawn from the market (Reynolds 1996). "Can cause dermatitis and shortness of breath" and camphor causes mild heart stimulant activity. Topically applied, it can penetrate the skin.4
Cordia dodecandra: (Zericote, Ziricote) Cross reactions are possible with this species once sensitivity to R-3,4-dimethoxydalbergione (found in pao ferro and Dalbergia species), obtusaquinone (found in cocobolo), and macassar quinone (found in macassar ebony) have developed.4
Cordia elaeagnoides: (Bocote, Becote) Cross reactions are possible with this species once sensitivity to R-3,4-dimethoxydalbergione (found in pao ferro and Dalbergia species), obtusaquinone (found in cocobolo), and macassar quinone (found in macassar ebony) have developed.4
Diospyros celebica: (Macassar Ebony) contains macassar II, a ß-naphthol "derivative that may become oxidised in vivo to macassar quinone. This compound has been shown to have sensitizing properties... Cross-sensitivity to other naphthoquinones" (three found in zericote, pao ferro, cocobolo, becote, and padauk) are possible.
"Later testing confirmed sensitivity to R-3,4-dimethoxydalbergione (found in pao ferro), obtusaquinone (found in cocobolo), and macassar quinone (found in macassar ebony)."
Wood of this species is one of the only ones that these substances have been proven to be found in.
"The yellow naphthoquinone pigment, plumbagin (methyl juglone) occurs in a colourless combined form and is liberated from root tissue by acid treatment. (Harborne 1966)... Plumbagin is also found in some species of the families Droseraceae, Ebenaceae, and Euphorbiaceae (Thomson 1971).... Plumbagin has an irritating odor and causes sneezing; it stains the skin to a purple color and has a vesicant action."4
Guibourtia tessmannii: (Bubinga) "Dermatitis, possibly caused by sensitizing quinones."6
Machaerium scleroxylon: (Pau Ferro) has R-3,4-dimethoxydalbergione7, a strong sensitizer and irritant. It can cause dermatitis, itching, swelling, redness of face, scrotum, and hands.4
Milletia laurentii: (Wenge) can have central nervous system effects, give dermatitis, irritate skin, is listed as a sensitizer, and is oily.5 Wenge contains 2.6-dimethoxybenzoquinone.7
Peltogyne densiflora: (Purpleheart) "Dalbergiones have been isolated from the wood."4
Pterocarpus soyauxii: (Padauk) can cause irritation of the skin, dermatitis, and sensitization. It can have naphthoquinones. Cross-sensitivity may occur with use of bocote when sensitivity has been developed to related quinones.5
Salix spp: (Willow) contains salicin, a phenolic glucoside, and is a precursor of aspirin; also has saligenin, a known contact allergen. Willow is also listed as a sensitizer.5
Tectona grandis: (Teak) The "dermatic compounds" (sensitizers) lapachol (aka tecomin, a quinone), desoxylapachol, and lapachonole (aka lapachonone) where found in Tectona wood.
Lapachol has been called "a known elicitor of contact dermatitis" and a "sensitizing agent."
"Deoxylapachol and lapachenole...are potent contact allergens."
"Local races of teak and even individual trees vary greatly in desoxylapachol content."
"Lapachenole has been shown to be both irritant and sensitizing" by Sandermann & Barghoorn (1955). "Indonesian natives have long distinguished three grades of the wood, the poorest (Djati sempoerna) being liable to cause skin irritation."4
Tetraclinis articulata: (Thuya Burl) The heartwood of this species is known to contain several dermatologically active compounds including thymoquinone, carvacrol, and ß- and ?-thujaplicins.4

Jared A

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